新聞動態

平潭動態

福建平潭:守望海峽 留住“鄉愁”

來源:新華網      發布時間:2014-12-24

    蔚藍的臺灣海峽一望無際,海浪拍向怪石嶙峋的峭壁,濺起水晶般的浪花。峭壁之上,綠色植物頑強地擴張著生命的版圖,一片古樸而滄桑的“石頭城堡”就坐落在這樣一片綠地毯之上,縷縷炊煙升起……每一個初到福建平潭的游客,都會被這樣一幅充滿鄉愁的畫面所打動。

“厝”在福建方言中是房子的意思,碉堡般的石頭厝,不僅是地方風情濃郁的獨特民居,也是這座大陸距離臺灣最近的海島祖先巧妙利用當地得天獨厚自然資源建造的,更是我國東南沿海海洋文明發展的“活化石”。

在“老平潭人”的眼中,石頭厝與平潭自古以來就有“不解之緣”,更是祖先留下的一朵建筑奇葩。據《平潭縣志》記載,平潭先民在漢代以前住在亂毛石砌筑的簡易草竂和漁竂中,唐宋時期,本地傳統建筑演進為平房排屋,墻體留小孔,以利采光通風。到了清代中葉,平潭農村開始出現“單進四扇房”,就地取用當地豐富的石資源,采用硬山屋頂,光廳暗房。這樣的“一房一廳”的宅式,沿襲至民國時期。

“過去,平潭島上生態環境不如現在這么好,一般材料的房屋經不住海風和海水的侵蝕。特別是到了冬天,臺灣海峽大風肆虐,為了建造更抗擊惡劣自然條件的房子,石頭自然成了‘不二之選’。”平潭綜合實驗區旅游發展局一位負責人告訴記者。

沒想到,“無心插柳柳成蔭”,這種極具地方特色的建筑如今成為平潭的燙金名片。一位北方游客表示,石頭厝有一種南方民居獨特的美感:“屋頂瓦片壓石塊,窗戶一律開小窗,輔上石條窗欄,遠遠望去,就像童話里神秘莊嚴的城堡一般古樸而充滿質感。”壓瓦片的石頭風吹雨淋后漸漸變成黑灰色,配上紅瓦頂,耕作農家,燕雀呢喃,好一幅原生態的“漁村圖”。

在平潭島300多平方公里的土地上,石頭厝像散落的明珠般隨處可見,其中典型民居群落有東庠澳底村,多為青石結構,較為凝重古樸;白青白沙村落臨海憑風,密密匝匝但井然有序,儼然是一幅精致的山水畫;流水鎮君山后石頭厝任由密密麻麻的碎石頭壓在瓦片上,猶如繁星點綴,遠望更如一幅肆意潑墨的寫意傳統山水畫。

平潭當地文史專家表示,在如今大規模城市化開發過程中,石頭厝正面臨“留存之困”:村民的保護意識相對淡薄,不少石頭厝及周邊環境都有不同程度的損壞,有的建筑表面雖然完好,內部卻存在嚴重的安全隱患,城鎮化的推進導致大量的石頭厝“空巢”現象出現……

為了更好地開發石頭厝蘊含的文化建筑底蘊,留住平潭的“鄉愁”,平潭綜合實驗區以開發石頭厝鄉村旅游為方向,多次邀請由臺北大學、中原大學景觀系、建筑系的專家學者組成的專門團隊進行考察,計劃引入臺灣社區營造經驗進行保護,并提高村民發展旅游業意識,培育村民發展民宿、美食制作、手工藝制作等開發農村特色產業的能力,開發石頭厝特色旅游產品。

“石頭厝不僅是平潭的特色,更是海峽兩岸共同享有的一份珍寶。從福建沿海一路南下,馬祖列島、平潭、泉州、金門島等地,不同風格的石頭厝散落鄉間,構成了一幅臺灣學者所說的‘最美原鄉圖景’。保護石頭厝,就是保護兩岸割不斷的一縷縷親緣。”平潭綜合實驗區旅游發展局一位負責人表示。


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